Post by TsarSamuil on Sept 14, 2010 11:53:49 GMT -5
Russia's Kazan aircraft plant to build next generation bomber.
The Kazan aircraft maker will start manufacturing a new strategic bomber, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin said on Tuesday.
The plant will continue upgrading Tu-160 and Tu-22 long-range bombers and will then "start assembling a new-generation strategic bomber," he said.
He offered no indication of the new bomber's specifications or exactly when production would start.
Another Kazan-based enterprise - a helicopter plant - will start production of a new Mi-38 helicopter and continue making Mi-8, Ansat and Aktai helicopters that have already proved their worth, Putin also said.
Post by TsarSamuil on Nov 18, 2010 12:23:39 GMT -5
Ukraine halts funding of An-70 transport aircraft program.
The Ukrainian Defense Ministry will not fund the joint Russia-Ukraine Antonov An-70 transport aircraft project, the Nezavisimaya Gazeta daily said on Thursday.
The An-70 is a medium-range turboprop military transport plane developed by Ukraine's Antonov design bureau. The Antonov company first tested a prototype of the An-70 in 1994, but a lack of Ukrainian state funds, and political disputes between Moscow and Kiev have prevented large-scale production of the aircraft.
Several international military-technical projects with Russia were suspended in the new Ukrainian draft military budget.
Nezavisimaya Gazeta daily said the cut in funding affects, aside from the Antonov An-70 program, the construction of a corvette for the Ukrainian Navy, as well as Mil Mi-24 helicopter modernization programs.
"If the An-70 project goes ahead in the nearest future, it will be carried out thanks to Russia's good will and support," Konstantin Makiyenko, an expert from the Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies (CAST), told Nezavisimaya Gazeta.
"Taking into account the Ukrainian economic situation, it (the ministry) will be able to fund only 10-15 percent of this project," he said.
The head of the Centre for Analysis of World Arms Trade, Igor Korotchenko said that "it was the intergovernmental Russia-Ukrainian committee, but not the Ukrainian Defense Ministry that would decide on the An-70's fate."
Russia hopes to develop a new airborne warning and control system (AWACS) plane by 2016, Air Force chief Col. Gen Alexander Zelin said on Tuesday.
“We are expecting to receive the A-100 aircraft built on the basis of the Il-476 transport plane with the PS-90 engine and extended flight range,” Zelin told reporters in Moscow.
The new AWACS plane will have an advanced active phase array capable of detecting and tracking airborne and land-based targets.
“We will have the carrier [Il-476] by 2013-2014 and should be able to build this plane by 2016,” Zelin said.
The Russian Air Force has around 20 A-50 Mainstay AWACS planes, based on the Ilyushin Il-76 transport.
The A-50 is equipped with the large Liana surveillance radar with its antenna in an over-fuselage rotodome and can control up to ten fighter aircraft for either air-to-air intercept or air-to-ground attack missions.
Ukraine Air Force to get three An-70 cargo planes.
14:22 05/10/2011 KIEV, October 5 (RIA Novosti)
The Ukrainian Air Force will take delivery of three An-70 military transport aircraft, Defense Minister Mikhaylo Yezhel said on Wednesday.
The first plane will be delivered "in the very near future," he said.
Asked whether Ukraine would be able to make An-70s without Russia, the minister said: "It's already making them."
He stressed, however, that he did not mean series production and this was a question not for the Defense Ministry, but for the Antonov design bureau.
The An-70 is a medium-range turboprop military transport plane developed by Ukraine's Antonov design bureau. The Antonov company first tested a prototype of the An-70 in 1994, but a lack of funding, and political disputes between Moscow and Kiev have prevented series production.
Antonov decided to proceed with self-funding.
The first plane was lost during its fourth flight in February 1995 in a mid-air collision that killed the seven crewmembers.
In 2002, Russia and Ukraine agreed on a 50-50 risk-sharing production deal, but in April 2006 Russia announced its complete withdrawal from the project.
Tupolev PAK DA - Russian supersonic stealth strategic bomber 2017 ÏÀÊ ÄÀ.
Perspektivnyi Aviatsionnyi Kompleks Dalney Aviatsyi - Ïåðñïåêòèâíûé àâèàöèîííûé êîìïëåêñ äàëüíåé àâèàöèè. ÏÀÊ ÄÀ - PAK DA.
The PAK DA is the strategic bomber response to the Sukhoi PAK FA Russian fifth generation jet fighter released in January 29, 2010. Russia has plans to introduce the PAK DA in the Russian Air Force and the Indian Air Force starting in 2025.
PAK DA First flight 2017, expected to enter service in the 2025-2030 timeframe
Tupolev OKB and Sukhoi make an alliance and are developing PAK DA stealth based in the Sukhoi PAK FA stealth technology and combining with the Tu-160 supersonic long range technology.
The Russian Air Force has deployed the upgraded version of the Beriev A-50 flying radar.
Designers of the new Airborne Warning And Control System (AWACS) aircraft have overhauled most of its computing hardware and software and combat stations, reported military spokesman Colonel Vladimir Drik.
“The aircraft underwent a deep modernization which took into account reports from the units where such vehicles are used. The result is a great improvement in a number of specifications of the A-50U AWACS,” he said.
Thanks to the upgrade the flying radar now has a greater range, improved target identification and better satellite communication capability. It can better track cruise missiles and supersonic aircraft and is more reliable overall, the Air Forces officer added.
The media earlier reported that the replacement hardware for the A-50U project allows it to track more targets and direct more friend-fighters. It also weighs less than the old equipment, which allows the aircraft to remain in the air longer before refueling.
The A-50 AWACS are based on the Ilyushin Il-76 transport which first entered service in 1984. Russia had produced some 40 such aircraft over the decades. It is also jointly developing flying radar based on the A-50, designed together with India.
Last Edit: Jan 25, 2012 12:27:52 GMT -5 by TsarSamuil
Post by TsarSamuil on Jan 25, 2012 12:27:32 GMT -5
Aviastar to Build 'Dozens' of Il-476 Transports by 2020.
11:08 20/01/2012 ULYANOVSK, January 20 (RIA Novosti)
Aviastar SP, one of Russia's largest aircraft-building enterprises, is to build 10 super-heavy Antonov An-124 and dozens of Ilyushin Il-476 cargo aircraft by 2020, Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin said on Friday at a meeting of the United Aircraft Corporation on military aviation.
"There is a large fleet of Ruslan (An-124) aircraft which will be modernized and refitted by 2020 and also ten new aircraft will be built," said Rogozin, who has responsibility for defense matters and the military-industrial complex.
The Aviastar plant will also produce "dozens" of Il-476 transports, he said.
The Il-476 is an extensively modified variant of the Il-76 freighter, with new engines, reinforced wing, modernized cockpit, and heavier payload. The aircraft will be built for the Russian armed forces and Emergencies Ministry, Aviastar told RIA Novosti last August at the MAKS airshow in Moscow.
No contract has yet been signed by the Air Force with Aviastar, Aviation Week reported in December.
The first Il-476 prototype is due to be rolled out at Aviastar in February and fly soon after.
About 30 Tu-22M3 strategic bombers from Russia's Long Range Aviation fleet will be modernized by 2020, Russian Air Force spokesman Col. Vladimir Drik said on Tuesday.
"We plan to upgrade about 30 strategic bombers to the M3M standard,” Drik said.
Tu-22M3 (NATO reporting name Backfire-C) is a supersonic, swing-wing, long-range strategic bomber that Russia uses mainly to patrol the skies over its southern borders, Central Asia and the Black Sea region.
The Tu-22M3 has a flight range of 6,800 km (4,300 miles) and can carry a 24,000 kg (52,910 lb) payload, including nuclear bombs and cruise missiles fitted with nuclear or conventional warheads. Aircraft of the M3M standard can be equipped with a wider range of weapons.
As of 2008, the Russian Air Force had at least 141 Tu-22M3 bombers in service.
Maj. Gen. Anatoly Zhikharev, commander of Long Range Aviation, earlier said that Russia's strategic aviation fleet will undergo extensive modernization while Russia’s next generation strategic bomber, the PAK DA, is being developed by the Tupolev Design Bureau.
He said the modernized aircraft will be equipped with new equipment, communications systems, cockpits and avionics.
The Russian Navy's Northern Fleet has accepted into service a modernized Ilyushin Il-38N anti-submarine warfare aircraft, which will also carry out electronic intelligence (ELINT) duties, the Northern Fleet's press spokesman Captain Vadim Serga said on Monday.
"A modernized Il-38N was accepted into service at a Northern Fleet air base" he said. "It has a wider range of combat capabilities. These aircraft can be used for mapping the magnetic and gravitational fields of the Northern Ice sea, and also for conducting scientific oceanographic research and underwater and air reconnaissance," he added.
He did not specify if the aircraft was the first of its type to be delivered to the Northern Fleet.
The majority of the fleet's Il-38s will be modernized to the new standard, according to a source who spoke to RIA Novosti. The Il-38N is fitted with the Novella sensor system, capable of detecting targets within a 320 km radius of the aircraft as well as radar observation of underwater, surface and airborne targets.
The Novella system includes a digital computer manned by two operators. The system also has a new high resolution thermal imaging system, a magnetic anomaly detection system, an optical detection system (including laser, TV and thermal channels), gravitational anomaly detector and other equipment.
Rogozin Doubts Need to Develop New Strategic Bomber.
16:08 06/06/2012 MOSCOW, June 6 (RIA Novosti)
A long-running dispute between the Russian military and defense industry over procurement of new weaponry may enter a new phase as Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin has questioned the need to develop a new strategic bomber, the Izvestia daily said on Wednesday.
Russia announced plans in 2009 to develop a fifth-generation strategic bomber, which will feature new airframe and elements of stealth technology, by 2025.
The new bomber is expected to replace the Tu-95MC Bear and Tu-160 Blackjack strategic bombers, and Tu-22M3 Backfire long-range bombers currently in service with Russia’s strategic aviation.
“Look at the current level of air defense and anti-missile defense – these aircraft will not get anywhere. Not ours, not theirs,” Rogozin, who oversees defense industry and will soon assume full control over financing of R&D for military purposes, said in an interview with Izvestia.
He added that strategic bombers could not be viewed as means of delivering nuclear strikes on enemy territory anymore.
Meanwhile, Chief of the Russian General Staff Gen. Nikolai Makarov told Izvestia that the new bomber project was underway as planned.
“We have made some progress in the development of the new bomber,” Makarov said. “If we reach production phase, this plane will outperform any modern aircraft of the same class, including those built by the Americans.”
It is not the first time Rogozin and Makarov have clashed over arms procurement issues.
In the beginning of this year, Makarov sharply criticized the quality of Russian-made weaponry for the Ground Forces and said the Defense Ministry would stop purchasing domestic-made armored vehicles for the next five years because they are outdated.
Rogozin, clearly angered by Makarov’s blunt statement, responded that the chief of the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces “is not the only one who makes decisions on the purchase of arms and military hardware.”
He said Russia’s Armed Forces would be modernized as scheduled in accordance with the state armament procurement program and the defense budget.
Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev on Saturday reiterated plans to develop a new, fifth-generation strategic bomber.
“Alongside a fifth-generation fighter there are also plans to develop an advanced long-range aviation complex. I am talking about a new strategic bomber,” he said.
Maintenance and modernization of the existing strategic bombers is not enough, he added.
His remarks come days after a senior cabinet member questioned the need for a new bomber.
Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin suggested on Monday that with the current and future air and missile defense systems in place, strategic bombers were no longer relevant and could no longer be relied on to deliver strikes on enemy territory.
Russia announced plans in 2009 to develop a new strategic bomber featuring stealth technology by 2025. The new bomber is expected to replace the Tu-95MC Bear and Tu-160 Blackjack strategic bombers, and Tu-22M3 Backfire long-range bombers currently in service with Russia’s strategic aviation.
Russia to develop 5th-generation bomber: Russian PM.
MOSCOW, June 9 (Xinhua) -- Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev Saturday said the country will develop a fifth-generation strategic bomber.
Speaking at a meeting on strategic aviation in the central Russian city of Kazan, Medvedev confirmed the government's plan of developing fifth-generation fighter and new strategic bomber.
Medvedev urged the Russian Armed Forces to be armed with "new technology" at no less than 30 percent in the next three years and up to 70 percent in another five years, the Kremlin press service reported.
The prime minister admitted the Air Force has lots of problems, saying the government was "trying to solve these problems."
The Russia Armed Forces obtained 15 new warplanes and a fourth- generation jet in 2011.
Local media earlier cited a Defense Ministry source saying Russia was not ready to build a strategic bomber of the new generation until at least 2025.
The source said the new bomber will be built using stealth technology, and the works would be conducted in the Tupolev (Tu) design bureau in Kazan, capital of Tatarstan republic.
The first Deputy Defense Minister Vladimir Popovkin said earlier that Russia was not going to speed up development of a new long-range bomber until at least 2015. Instead, air forces would modernize the existing fleet of strategic Tu-95MC and Tu-160 bombers until 2025 or 2030.
Putin Calls for New Long-Range Bomber and UAVs.
18:48 14/06/2012 KOREVENSK, June 14 (RIA Novosti)
Russia must start development of a long-range bomber aircraft, President Vladimir Putin said on Thursday at a meeting on defense orders.
"We have to develop work on the new PAK-DA long-range bomber aircraft for Long-Range Aviation. I know how expensive and complex this is. We have talked about this many times with ministers, and with the head of the General Staff. The task is not easy from a scientific-technical standpoint, but we need to start work," Putin said.
If bomber development work is not started soon, Russia might miss the boat, Putin said.
A new long-range cruise missile has already been adopted for these aircraft, he said, adding that the “tactical level” is in need of deep modernization.
The president also said the A-100 airborne warning and control system (AWACS) project should be implemented within the next five years.
The new AWACS plane will have the capability to detect and track long-range airborne and ground-based targets.
Russia operates a mixed fleet of 63 aging Tu-95MS turboprop missile carriers, and just 13 Tu-160 bombers.
Russia must also develop a range of military unmanned air vehicles (UAV) including strike and reconnaissance types, Putin said.
"We need a program for unmanned aircraft. Experts say this is a most important area of development in aviation," he said. "We need a range of all types, including automated strike aircraft, reconnaissance and other types," Putin added.
Russia plans to spend around 400 billion rubles ($13 billion) on UAV development in the next eight years.
Putin’s call for a new bomber comes just a week after Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, who has responsibility for the military-industrial complex, appeared to pour cold water on the need for a new bomber, in remarks carried in Izvestia newspaper.
Last Edit: Jun 14, 2012 12:52:25 GMT -5 by TsarSamuil
Post by TsarSamuil on Jun 14, 2012 13:58:39 GMT -5
Russia to allocate 123 billion USD for warplane development by 2020: Putin.
MOSCOW, June 14 (Xinhua) -- Some 4 trillion rubles (123 billion U.S. dollars) would be allocated to the Russian Air Forces by 2020 for development of warplanes, President Vladimir Putin said Thursday.
During his visit to the 393rd airbase in southern Krasnodar territory, Putin said the total money for state defense orders would amount to 20 trillion rubles (613 billion dollars) by 2020.
"More than 4 trillion rubles will be assigned for the construction and design of aircraft. There will be plenty of brand-new planes for you," Putin told the servicemen.
He also urged the start of development of long-range bombers and military unmanned aerial vehicles.
According to Putin, Russia would spend some 400 billion rubles (13 billion dollars) on the development of drones in the next eight years.
Meanwhile, the president reiterated that Russia has every possibility to adequately respond to the U.S.-led European missile defense shield, though Moscow would like to see the U.S. plan revised.
"We must look into the future and respond timely (to these plans)... Of course, our partners should better not do this, as the move would drive our retaliation," Putin said.
Thus, Putin stressed, the state defense orders should be implemented "strictly on time."
Moscow has long opposed the deployment of U.S. missile defense facilities near its borders and called for legally binding guarantees from the United States and NATO that the missile shield is not targeting Russia.
Post by TsarSamuil on Jun 19, 2012 13:19:48 GMT -5
Rogozin in Climbdown Over Long-Range Bomber.
16:55 19/06/2012 MOSCOW, June 19 (RIA Novosti)
Russia's Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin said on Tuesday he was in favor of development of the PAK DA long-range bomber for the country's air force, just hours after saying the project was unnecessary, in apparent contravention of President Putin's call last week for domestic aerospace industry to develop just such an aircraft.
“I am for PAK DA but it should not be a copy of the B-2. We need to look at the horizon and develop hypersonic long-range aviation, civil and military,” Rogozin said on his Twitter blog on Tuesday afternoon. The B-2 is an American long-range stealth bomber developed by Northrop, which became the most expensive aircraft ever built and is in service with the U.S. Air Force in very small numbers.
Earlier on Tuesday, Rogozin, who has special responsibility for the military-industrial complex, insisted Russia has no need to develop a new long-range bomber to replace its existing fleet.
Rogozin was repeating a statement he made to Russian media reports earlier this month. He said then that he saw no need for PAK DA, an acronym for future long-range aircraft in Russian, to replace the air force's ageing Tu-95MS cruise-missile carriers and Tu-160 supersonic bombers.
“These aircraft will not get anywhere. Not ours, not theirs,” Rogozin said in an interview with Izvestia in June.
"I'm ready to insist on my point of view," Rogozin said on Tuesday on his Twitter blog. "With modern air defense systems, these targets will be destroyed on the way," he said.
In May, Rogozin called on Russia's defense industry to develop hypersonic air-breathing weapons as a future strike system. He picked out American development work in the X-51, Falcon, HiFire and HyFly programs as examples of what he described as the perspective threat posed by U.S. hypersonic development work.
"The undertaking of this work allows us to lay the basis for creation of a national competitor in hypersonic weapons," he said.
Development of such a weapon should be discussed at the highest levels of state, he said.
Last Thursday, President Vladimir Putin ordered initial development of the new long-range bomber for strategic aviation. Speaking during a conference on defense orders, Putin said: "We have to develop work on the new PAK DA long-range bomber aircraft for Long-Range Aviation. I know how expensive and complex this is. The task is not easy from a scientific-technical standpoint, but we need to start work," Putin said.
If Russia did not start work soon on the project, it could miss the boat, Putin said.
Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov said previously that a new aircraft assembly line in Russia's Kazan plant (KAPO) would build PAK-DA and the new Antonov An-70 propfan transport aircraft. The same plant previously built the Tu-95MS and Tu-160.
The Defense Ministry is due to hold a meeting to discuss development of the new bomber later in June.
“The comments from Putin and Rogozin appear to reflect sharply differing opinions – unusually being aired in public - as to the desirability of pursuing a bomber replacement for the Tu-160 and Tu-95 in the strategic strike role," said Douglas Barrie, air warfare analyst for the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies.
"In the long term the Russian Air Force’s role in the nuclear triad – beyond the Tu-160 and the Tu-95 – would seem to rest on the acquisition of the PAK DA, though the aircraft would also have utility in the tactical environment. A programme such as PAK DA would be expensive, and whether this could be accommodated within available likely funding also remains in question,” he added.
Currently, only Russia and the United States operate intercontinental range bomber aircraft. Most other nuclear-capable nations rely solely on intercontinental ballistic missiles, based on submarines or in land-based silos, or cruise missiles. The United States has expressed an interest in successor systems to its B-1, B-2 and B-52H long-range bombers.
Post by TsarSamuil on Jun 27, 2012 12:40:07 GMT -5
New Bomber Outline Takes Shape – Russian AF Commander.
15:01 27/06/2012 MOSCOW, June 27 (RIA Novosti)
The outline for a design of the Russian Air Force's future strategic bomber, known as PAK-DA, has been worked out, Air Force commander Maj. Gen. Viktor Bondarev said on Wednesday.
"The outline of this aircraft is already formed, and the technical and tactical characteristics are being set out," Bondarev told a news conference at RIA Novosti dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the Russian Air Force.
"I think we have the resources and funding to make the plane on time, so it is ready when we need it as a replacement or addition to our Tu-95 and Tu-160 strategic bombers," he added.
The AF commander did not specify the number of new bombers expected to enter service with the Air Force after 2020.
Bondarev also denied any knowledge about the ongoing conflict between Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, who has responsibility for military-industrial affairs, and the Armed Force’s General Staff over the need for a new “traditional” strategic bomber.
Rogozin said on his blog last week that it would be undesirable for Russia to "go down the American route," and produce a bomber like the Northrop B-2, and repeated his earlier calls for a hypersonic air vehicle system instead of a traditional long-range bomber.
In earlier comments, Rogozin had appeared to dismiss the need for PAK-DA, saying long-range bombers would fall victim to air defense systems long before reaching their targets.
Rogozin's comments came just days after President Vladimir Putin called on Russian industry to develop PAK-DA.
TsarSamuil: Very very hot...sometimes around 31-35...and it has been going on since month of May, everything is scorched yellow and dry, things are dying or dead, this is abnormal summer..must be global warming, usually have rainy dull summers, this feel like south eu
Jul 30, 2018 10:49:17 GMT -5
TsarSamuil: large forest fires, not where I live, but have country-wide BBQ ban..which I find ridiculous...not to enjoy this warm summer? pffft..
Jul 30, 2018 10:50:42 GMT -5
White Cossack: You enjoy it, huh.
Jul 30, 2018 12:41:41 GMT -5
TsarSamuil: Bbq is basic slavic right
Aug 3, 2018 10:18:31 GMT -5
Proto-Orchid: @ussrstrong: I blame general low activity on social medias, all the people sit there today
Oct 10, 2018 12:53:50 GMT -5
reznik: @proto-Orchid: very true. What's worse, is that the system is designed specifically to keep those people dormant in their echo chambers. Nothing new to learn for them there, just stupid cat videos and such. Sad.
Oct 14, 2018 5:48:26 GMT -5
Proto-Orchid: Its the substitute for going out, meeting and spending your time with friends in real life. Its just part of the story. When I was younger I remember people were meeting to play team sports, but today you see completely autistic people jogging with iPhone.
Oct 14, 2018 18:18:38 GMT -5
Proto-Orchid: Then they come back home, put pictures on Instagram or Facebook to show off how they spent their time jogging, and as mental satisfaction they get few likes or hearts, or whatever social medias have today, which is a measure of how good their life is. Sick
Oct 14, 2018 18:21:43 GMT -5
Pan-Slavic Patriot: Sto Latz! Today marks 100 years of Polska! May there be 100 more! Wish I could have gone to the Independence March to celebrate this year, of all years. Theres always the next one to look forward to...
Nov 11, 2018 6:56:57 GMT -5
prawiomir: Hello. : )
Nov 25, 2018 17:19:11 GMT -5
Pan-Slavic Patriot: The latest flare up in the Ukraine-Russia conflict is painful to watch. Two brothers pit against one-another by foriegn elites, for what? Money and power... Sad.
Nov 30, 2018 3:17:07 GMT -5
TsarSamuil: Seems like its loosing momentum? lets hope...
Dec 29, 2018 9:15:04 GMT -5
Farm needs Production with alu: To Direktor: Herr Wasilij Rosinov Adresse: Kasachstan, 110 006 Kostanay, ul. Schewchenko, 64 Tel: +7 (3142) 54 09 89 Fax: +7 (3142) 54 65 53 Email: email@example.com Web: www.ivolga.kz
To Ms. Yuliya Ryaskina Please place this email to concerning Managemen
Feb 27, 2019 23:01:32 GMT -5
Marcinko: Looking for contacts to research Marcinko name in Slovakia.
Jun 3, 2019 0:37:57 GMT -5
White Cossack: Nikolov, my dear.. What's up
Jul 28, 2019 9:08:27 GMT -5
TsarSamuil: Bought a 3rd book shelf, for some reason I'm crazy about buying lots of books..
Aug 12, 2019 15:49:41 GMT -5
kooratz: I don't shout , it's considered rude, here in the US. I do shout a few things though, for one, ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION, IS RUINING OUR NATION!
Sept 13, 2019 20:32:33 GMT -5
imgur.com/a/IsoPl Kozacke Riesenie ak chceme prevziat vladu musime dat narodu ,viacej nez sluby.Musime im dat zaruku ze nasa vlada nebude ovladat ludi,ale ze bude sluzit narodu.Tato zaruka bude
Nov 28, 2019 11:30:45 GMT -5
TsarSamuil: A guy keeps spamming casino links every day, I have to ban him constantly, I wonder what his post count would be otherwise, approaching mine?
Jan 10, 2020 14:27:01 GMT -5