Russian scientists are developing automatic sealing systems to protect future manned space stations on the Moon and Mars from debris, Russia's Central Research Institute of Machine Building said.
"Protection of spacecraft modules against micrometeorite impact and space debris, based on the use of protective screens, that is passive protection, is at the limit of its technical capability due to weight restrictions," the institute's experts said.
"This is why we need to develop new protection based on self-sealing systems capable of independently and quickly restoring the object's air-tightness in case of leaks," they said.
Scientists said there are three ways of self-sealing a spacecraft. The first is to place a plug into the hole and thus stop the air leak. The second is to feed liquid sealant into the rupture, and the third is a combination of the two methods.
Post by TsarSamuil on Nov 23, 2010 11:29:44 GMT -5
Russia to start work on nuclear space engine next year.
Russia's Energia space corporation said on Tuesday it is planning to start working on standardized space modules with nuclear-powered propulsion systems next year.
Energia director Vitaly Lopota said the first launches with a capacity of 150 to 500 KW could be made some time in 2020.
Federal Space Agency Roscosmos director Anatoly Perminov previously said the development of Megawatt-class nuclear space power systems (MCNSPS) for manned spacecraft was crucial if Russia wanted to maintain a competitive edge in the space race, including the exploration of the moon and Mars.
The project will require an estimated 17 billion rubles (over $580 million) in funding.
Energia earlier said it is also ready to design a space-based nuclear power station with a service life of 10-15 years, to be initially placed on the moon or Mars.
It is also working on a concept of a nuclear-powered space tug, which could more than halve satellite launching and orbiting costs.
KOROLYOV (Moscow region), November 23 (RIA Novosti)
DM-3 booster with 3 Glonass-M satellites falls into Pacific.
The DM-3 booster with three Glonass-M satellites fell into the Pacific Ocean in 1500 kilometers northwest of Honolulu, a source in the aerospace industry said.
"Three Glonass-M satellites fell into a non-navigational area of the Pacific Ocean in some 1500 kilometers northwest of the city of Honolulu, administrative center of the state of Hawaii," the source said adding that there were no casualties or damage.
A Russian Proton-M carrier rocket, launched from the Baikonur space center in Kazakhstan with three Glonass-M satellites and the booster, deviated from its course to 8 degrees.
Glonass-M sattelites have not reached their planned orbit and may fail to function as normal. The satellites were launched into orbit on Sunday to complete the formation of Russia's global navigation system.
Glonass is the Russian equivalent of the U.S. Global Positioning System, or GPS, and is designed for both military and civilian use. Both systems allow users to determine their positions to within a few meters.
Russia currently has a total of 26 Glonass satellites in orbit, but three of them are not operational. The three Glonass-M satellites to be put into orbit on Sunday will allow Russia to operate a complete Glonass network of 24 operational satellites and have several satellites in reserve.
The three satellites were planned to be put into operation in about 6 weeks.
Post by TsarSamuil on Jan 18, 2011 16:59:42 GMT -5
Cablegate: Europe's 'stupid' satellite plan driven by French interests.
ANDREW WILLIS Today @ 09:17 CET
EUOBSERVER / BRUSSELS - Europe's Galileo satellite navigation system is "stupid", "doomed to failure" and driven by French military interests, the CEO of a large German company involved in the project has claimed.
On Monday (17 January) the board of German satellite firm OHB Technology sacked Mr Berry Smutny after last week's release of the diplomatic cable containing the remarks caused consternation.
The revelations will come as a further embarrassment to EU industry commissioner Antonio Tajani who is due to present the commission's mid-term review of the Galileo project on Tuesday afternoon in Strasbourg.
Intended to challenge the dominance of the US-built Global Positioning System (GPS) set up by the Pentagon in the 1980s, Galileo has already attracted widespread controversy due to massive budgetary overspends.
"I think Galileo is a stupid idea that primarily serves French interests," Mr Smutny reportedly told US diplomats, according to the October 2009 cable from the US embassy in Berlin, obtained by WikiLeaks and released by Norwegian daily Aftenposten.
Mr Smutny's firm was jointly awarded a ˆ566 million contract to develop 14 satellites for the Galileo system, originally forecast to cost ˆ3.4 billion but recently reported to be heading for a final bill closer to ˆ20 billion.
The project, due to become operational in 2014, is a "waste of EU taxpayers' money", Mr Smutny is documented as saying.
"He claimed the EU desire to develop a redundant but alternative to GPS was spearheaded by the French after an incident during the Kosovo conflict when the US military 'manipulated' GPS to support military operations," the cable read.
"Since this time, he said France has aggressively corralled EU support to invest in Galileo development - something Smutny said France wants to ensure their missile guidance systems are free of any GPS reliance. Smutny added, the irony for German investment in Galileo is that some of France's nuclear missiles are aimed at Berlin," it continued.
Approached by Aftenposten to comment on the cable, the former CEO conceded that he had met US officials but denied making the remarks. In as statement on Monday however, the supervisory board of OHB Technology said it had "passed a unanimous resolution to revoke Mr Smutny's appointment".
Other unrelated sackings caused by the WikiLeaks cables include the former chief of staff to Germany's vice-chancellor Guido Westerwelle, accused of spying for the Americans.
Around 2,000 of the 250,000 cables in the whistleblower site's possession have been released so far, in cooperation with The Guardian, The New York Times, El Pais, Le Monde and Der Spiegel publications. But Aftenposten last month said it had obtained all the diplomatic documents given to WikiLeaks, indicating that it would publish stories based on them independently.
In what could spark a fresh round of revelations, former Swiss banker Rudolf Elmer handed data containing account details of 2,000 prominent people to Wikileaks founder Julian Assange at a packed press conference in London on Monday.
Mr Assange said the data contained on two disks will reveal corruption and crime in the shadowy world of offshore banking. Mr Elmer, who has given data to Wikileaks before, was fired from Swiss bank Julius Baer in 2002.
Post by TsarSamuil on Jan 25, 2011 19:08:14 GMT -5
Russia to launch new batch of Glonass satellites by June.
Russia will launch another three Glonass-M satellites on board a Proton heavy carrier rocket later this year to complete the orbiting Glonass grouping, the head of Russia's space agency Roscosmos said Tuesday.
Anatoly Perminov told a news conference in Moscow that Roscosmos allocated about 3 billion rubles ($100 million) for the launch, expected in May-June.
The recent loss of three Glonass-M satellites as a result of a series of mistakes made by the Russian Energia rocket corporation cost Russia 2.5 billion rubles ($82 million) in direct damages.
The December 5 launch of the Proton-M carrier rocket was supposed to conclude the forming of Russia's Glonass navigation system, a project similar to GPS in the United States.
However, the rocket veered off course and sunk in the Pacific Ocean.
Russia has switched on two reserve Glonass-M satellites in orbit to compensate for the ones that were lost. Roscosmos will also launch a Glonass-K satellite in Feb.-March to bring the current number of operational satellites in orbit to 23.
The complete grouping must have 24 operational and 2-3 reserve satellites for Glonass network to operate with global coverage.
Post by TsarSamuil on Jan 27, 2011 11:42:02 GMT -5
Russia's Angara booster rocket to be 'ready for tests' in 2012.
Russia's new generation Angara booster rocket will be ready for a test launch by 2012, the country's space force commander said on Thursday.
"We plan that it will be fully prepared for launch in 2012," Oleg Ostapenko told reporters. "Everything is going according to plan."
Angara rockets, designed to provide lifting capabilities between 2,000 and 40,500 kg into low earth orbit, are expected to become the core of Russia's carrier rocket fleet, replacing several existing systems.
The rockets have a modular design similar to the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV), based on a common Universal Rocket Module (URM).
Russia has most likely lost a new dual-purpose geodesic satellite after it failed to reach a designated circular orbit 1,000 kilometers (600 miles) above Earth.
The GEO-IK-2 satellite, designed to create a detailed three-dimensional map of the Earth and help the Russian military to locate the precise positions of various targets, was launched Tuesday on board a Rockot carrier rocket from the Plesetsk space center in northern Russia.
The spacecraft failed to communicate with Russia's Ground Control at a designated time but was reportedly "discovered" by U.S. space monitoring services, moving along an elliptical orbit whose lowest point brought it to within 330 kilometers (205 miles) of Earth.
The Russian Defense Ministry has set up a joint commission with Russia's space agency Roscosmos to investigate the possible causes of the incident and to attempt bringing the satellite to the designated orbit.
However, sources in the Russian space industry believe it is impossible to correct the current orbit in such a way that the satellite would be able to perform all its functions properly.
The incident comes just two months after Russia lost three Glonass satellites when a Proton-M carrier rocket veered off course and sunk in the Pacific Ocean.
The December 5 launch of the Proton-M carrier rocket was supposed to conclude the forming of Russia's Glonass navigation system, a project similar to GPS in the United States.
The crew of the Mars500 stimulated mission on Saturday landed on the "surface" of the Red Planet.
The six-man multinational crew has been sealed since June inside a mocked-up spaceship without sun or fresh water.
"The stimulated touchdown was successfully completed at noon Moscow time [15:00 GMT]," said a spokesman for Russia's Institute of Biomedical Problems that runs the project with the participation of the European Space Agency (Esa).
On February 14, three of the group - Alexander Smoliyevsky, Diego Urbina and Wang Yue - will descend onto the planet, don spacesuits and walk on its "surface," which in reality will be the sandy floor inside a large hangar in Moscow.
After 30 days working on the Red Planet, the crew will then embark on a 240-day return trip to Earth.
The 520-day Mars500 project is designed to investigate how humans cope with psychological and physiological stress on a lengthy spaceflight.
MOSCOW, February 12 (RIA Novosti)
Walking the Red Planet: 'Mars 500' landing simulation.
Almost nine months of isolation, training and preparation have finally paid off. Two Cosmonauts have stepped out onto the Red Planet for the first time. Mars 500 may be a simulated mission, with the planet's surface recreated in the Moscow region, but the 'space walk' is monitored by Russia's real mission control.
Mars500 crew 'walk on Mars' on simulated mission.
By Jonathan Amos Science correspondent, BBC News 14 February 2011
Two men wearing spacesuits have walked across a sandpit at a Moscow institute in a simulation of a mission to Mars.
The pair - both volunteers - have spent eight months with four other men locked away in a series of windowless steel tubes representing a spacecraft.
The Mars500 project is trying to find out how the human mind and body would cope on a long-duration spaceflight.
Russian Alexander Smoleevskiy and Italian Diego Urbina planted flags on their pretend planet.
One flag was for Russia, another for China and a third for the European Space Agency (Esa).
They then undertook some virtual experiments with the assistance of a robot rover, with the whole activity lasting an hour and 12 minutes.
The walk was overseen by Mission Control Moscow which normally deals with events on the International Space Station (ISS).
"We have made great progress today," commented Vitaly Davydov, the deputy head of the Russian Federal Space Agency, who was watching a video feed of the two men. All systems have been working normally."
The Mars500 venture is being run by the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IMBP), with the participation of Esa.
Smoleevskiy and Urbina were said to have "landed" on the Red Planet on Saturday.
In reality, they had merely moved to another compartment in the cramped modular buildings set up at the institute.
A Chinese national, Wang Yue, had joined them, and he will perform one of two further surface walks planned in the coming days.
Three other volunteers - Russians Alexey Sitev and Sukhrob Kamolov, and Frenchman Romain Charles - are said, in the context of the experiment, to be still in orbit above Mars. Again, in reality, they are just a few metres away in the series of interconnected tubes.
The life the six men are experiencing is quite different from that on the ISS where vehicles and their passengers come and go. The station is a busy place and communication with the ground is also possible in real-time for its residents.
On the Mars500 ship, however, life is much more restricted. The messages these pretend explorers send to the scientists outside their simulation craft have a 20-minute delay on them to mimic the sort of time lag radio signals would build up as they crossed the vastness of space between Mars and Earth.
Much of their time is taken up running through an experiment programme devised by scientists from Russia and across the EU. Several of these experiments look at how the stress of the participants' predicament affects their mental and physical states.
The landing operations are brief moments of excitement for the team. The Orlan suits are of the type worn by real cosmonauts. In this bulky gear, the Marswalkers have drill to get below their simulation surface and do virtual analyses on the samples they pull up.
Mars500 is so called because it follows broadly the duration of a possible human Mars mission in the future using conventional propulsion: 250 days for the trip to the Red Planet, 30 days on the Martian surface and 240 days for the return journey, totalling 520 days. (In reality, it would probably take a lot longer than this).
A real mission to Mars is still decades away. The challenges involved are immense, both technologically and in terms of the budget required. It would probably cost tens of billions of dollars to mount such an endeavour.
Scientists would need to find a way of protecting the crew from space radiation. On the ISS, this is not so much of a problem because the Earth's magnetic field helps shield the orbiting platform from damaging, high-energy particles emanating from the Sun and deep space.
Russian and European space officials are already talking about repeating the experiment on the space station itself. Such an experiment would add in the complexity of having to cope with weightlessness as well - something the Mars500 participants do not face.
"It is in the mind of many people now to do something like this eventually on the ISS," explained Dr Martin Zell, who runs Europe's science programme on the orbiting platform.
"You can do it with different levels of sophistication and difficulty. It will probably start with a kind of temporary disconnect of the ISS crew from communications, when, for a certain period, perhaps just days initially, they have to operate on their own.
"But the ultimate simulation on the ISS would be to have a module - perhaps free-flying, perhaps connected - with maybe a crew of three isolated from the rest of the station with their own resources for six months to year - much like in Mars500; and again with reduced and realistic communication," he told BBC News.
VIRTUAL SPACESHIP: The interior volume of the habitat is about 550 cubic metres. The 'Mars surface' is another 1,200 cubic metres MEDICAL MODULE: A 12m-long cylinder that acts as the laboratory. Should a crewmember become ill, he can be isolated and treated here HABITABLE MODULE: The main living quarters. The 20m-long module has beds, a galley, a social area. It also acts as the main control room LANDING MODULE: This will only be used during the 30-day landing operation. Three crewmembers will visit the "surface" UTILITY MODULE: It is divided into four compartments, to store food and other supplies, to house a greenhouse, a gym a refrigeration unit SURFACE MODULE: To walk across the soil and rocks of Mars, crewmembers must put on Orlan spacesuits and pass through an airlock
Last Edit: Feb 14, 2011 15:49:10 GMT -5 by TsarSamuil
50th Anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's flight into space.
On 12 April 1961, Yuri Gagarin made the first human flight in space. 12 April 2011 will be the 50th anniversary of this event.
On March 9, 1934, a boy was born in the country-side west of Moscow. His name was Yuri Gagarin. He grew up on a collective farm, where his father worked as a carpenter. When Yuri was seven years old, the German armies invaded Russia. Yuris father joined the army, while his mother took him and his older brother and sister away from the fighting.
In high-school, Yuri decided to train as a technician, and attended a technical school on the outskirts of Moscow. He left school in 1951 as a trained metalworker and enrolled at an industrial college. While he was a student he became interested in aircraft and took lessons at a local flying school. Pretty soon, it became obvious that young Yuri had a natural talent for flying, and when he graduated from college in 1955, he joined the Soviet Airforce. It became evident that Gagarins abilities as a pilot were beyond normal, and he was taken of normal duties to work as a test-pilot, flying new and experimental aircraft.
Soon Yuri went to his officers and volunteered to become a cosmonaut. His officers were stunned, since no-one had ever before volunteered for such a mission, and consequently there were no procedures for this. However, Gagarins name was passed on to the people in charge of the top-secret Soviet space-project, and after a while he was contacted by some representatives who wanted to test him.
Yuri Gagarin was selected among a special group of the Soviet Unions 20 best test-pilots. Later, due to economical restrictions, this group was limited to six pilots. These went on to further training, while the others returned to test-flying. During the very tough and difficult training-period, Yuri obtained top grades from the instructors.
Among other things Gagarin withstood 13 Gs in the centrifuge, and, as a part of the psychological training, sat in a soundless, lightless room for 24 hours. The instructors described him as a man who "...submits useful suggestions at meetings. Always sure of his resources... very difficult, if not impossible to upset... Stands out among his colleagues thanks to his great scope of active attention, bright mind and quick reaction".
The official announcement of Gagarin as pilot was made on April 11, but he was privately informed on April 9.
1961, at the age of 27, Gagarin left the earth. It was April the 12th, 9.07 Moscow time (launch-site, Baikonur). 108 minutes later, he was back . The period of orbital revolution was 89:34 minutes (this figure was "calculated by electronic computers"). The missions maximum flight altitude was 327 000 meters. The maximum speed reached was 28 260 kilometers per hour.
"On the 12th of April, 1961, the Soviet spaceship-sputnik was put in orbit around the Earth with me on board" "...there was a good view of the Earth which had a very distinct and pretty blue halo. It had a smooth transition from pale blue, blue, dark blue, violet and absolutely black. It was a magnificent picture." [Gagarin in his official statement after the flight, April 15, 1961.]
The vessel used was the Soviet spaceship/satellite Vostok 1, which was a small one-manned spherical descent module with a diameter of 2.3 meters. The module was mounted on top of an instrument module containing the engine system. Together these weighed less than five tonnes. The cosmonaut was strapped into an ejection seat, from which he would exit the descent module upon re-entry.
The Vostok 1 was mounted on a SL-3 variant of the SS-6 Sapwood rocket, which was 38.36 meters long and weighed 287.03 tonnes at launch. It had three stages, the first stage being four breakaway boosters, strapped on to the second and third stages. The first stage used RD-107 engines, which provided 102,000 kg of thrust.
Basically, Gagarin was sitting in a tin-can on top of a bomb.
During the flight of Vostok 1, Gagarin was not given control of his craft. This was because of the above mentioned insecurity regarding reactions of the mind and physics in weightlessness. The Russians didn't want to risk the cosmonaut losing control over himself while in space, and thus endangering the mission.
There was a key available in a sealed envelope which enabled the cosmonaut to take control over the vessel in case of an emergency. The Vostok also contained a supply of food and water for ten days in case of retrorocket failure. Due to the orbit chosen, the ship was expected to return naturally during this period. However, Gagarin did not encounter any problems. "The spaceship put in orbit, and the carrier-rocket separated, weightlessness set in. At first the sensation was to some extent unusual, but I soon adapted myself" "I maintained continuous communication with Earth on different channels by telephone and telegraph".
Upon return, the Vostok capsule itself landed too heavily, with an impact making it impossible for humans to remain inside during landing. Gagarin ejected at an altitude of approximately 7 kilometers, and landed safely.
(At 7000 meters above the surface of Earth, the temperature is approximately -30 degrees Celsius. Gagarin was wearing a space-suit, and didn't suffer from the cold, but one might guess that he enjoyed quite a free fall before releasing his parachute.)
An old woman, her grand-daughter and a cow were the first beings to see him return to the planet.
In the official Soviet documents, there is no mention of the parachute ejection system included for Gagarin. However trivial a lie, this was due to the international rules for aviation records, which stated that "The pilot remains in his craft from launch to landing". This rule, if applied, would have "disqualified" Gagarins space-flight.
Yuri Gagarins flight into space was headline news all over the world, and he was awarded the medal and official title Hero of the Soviet union.
He died seven years later, on march 7, 1968 (sometimes stated as the 27th).He died in an airplane accident, flying the MIG-15 as a test-pilot. By then he was 34 years old.
America's longest serving space shuttle - Discovery - is preparing to lift off for the last time, after 26 years of flight. It's also one of the last times the U.S. will send any shuttle into orbit before it suspends its space program. RT's Gayane Chichakyan looks at what the move means for America.
Shuttle Discovery docks with ISS for final time.
The U.S. Discovery shuttle has successfully docked to the International Space Station (ISS), the NASA said on Saturday.
Discovery Commander Steve Lindsey performed the maneuver at 2:14 p.m. EST, while the two spacecraft were orbiting 220 miles above western Australia.
It was Discovery's 13th and final docking to the space station. After this mission, the shuttle will be retired and placed in a museum. According to NASA, Discovery has flown 38 missions to date - more missions than any other shuttle - and made more than 5,600 trips around the Earth.
"What took you guys so long?" the space station's commander asked. Discovery should have arrived last November, but was grounded by fuel tank cracks. It finally blasted off Thursday. Discovery's skipper apologized for the delay.
Discovery will spend at least a week at the orbiting outpost. Its mission delivered and will install the Permanent Multipurpose Module, the Express Logistics Carrier 4 and provide critical spare components to the International Space Station.
MOSCOW, February 26 (RIA Novosti)
Last Edit: Feb 26, 2011 16:36:13 GMT -5 by TsarSamuil
Post by TsarSamuil on Feb 26, 2011 16:34:32 GMT -5
Russia launches Glonass-K satellite.
The Russian Space Forces have successfully launched a new Glonass-K navigation satellite from the Plesetsk space center, a Defense Ministry spokesman said Saturday.
The previous launch under the Glonass project in December 2010, supposed to conclude the forming of the satellite grouping, was unsuccessful as the rocket veered off course and sunk in the Pacific Ocean. The loss cost Russia 2.5 billion rubles ($86 million) in direct damages.
The Glonass satellite network is Russia's answer to the U.S. Global Positioning System, or GPS, and is designed for both military and civilian uses. Both systems allow users to determine their positions to within a few meters.
The Glonass-K, which has a service life of 10 years, will beam five navigation signals - four in the special L1 and L2 bands and one for civilian applications in the L3 band.
The complete grouping must have 24 operational and 2-3 reserve satellites for the Glonass network to operate with global coverage.
Russia currently has 22 Glonass satellites in orbit and will launch another three Glonass-M satellites on board a Proton heavy carrier rocket later this year to complete the Glonass grouping.
Modern space exploration is more about commerce than national prestige, and getting funding means drawing a convincing picture of future profits to the investor, said Alan Smith from the Mullard Space Science Laboratory in London. Alan Smith heads the British part of the Russia-UK joint TwinSat Project that is working on the construction of next-generation satellites to observe and monitor seismic activity on Earth, such as earthquakes and volcanoes.
Russian Soyuz spacecraft traveling to the International Space Station will have 12 seats booked for NASA astronauts between 2014 and 2015. With all US Space Shuttles being retired, there will soon be no alternative means to get crews to the ISS.
The tickets have been purchased as part of an extension of the cooperation agreement between Russian Roscosmos and American NASA. With the new addition to the pact, it is now set to expire in late June 2016.
The contract includes all the necessary training for space explorers and delivery of their personal possessions to and from the ISS. The new inflation-accounted cost of travel is $353 million or $63 million per person as opposed to the current price tag of $56 million.
The Space Shuttle program has two more launches scheduled, after which the US' veteran space vehicles will be grounded. It is not clear yet what spacecraft will replace the shuttles. NASA plans to outsource transportation services to private companies.
TsarSamuil: Medicines aren't allowed to be sold on the market without a 15 year trial period, to determine short n long term effects. Sputnik just turned 1 year, others not even that, just months, how can we determine long term effects without the data from long term
Aug 24, 2021 11:22:20 GMT -5
TsarSamuil: exposure? Does anyone have a time machine to go 14 years or so into the future n come back n say whether we have good vaccines? Fear makes world abandon its own standards..Besides, vaccines for other illnesses that have been developed for YEARS actually
Aug 24, 2021 11:23:40 GMT -5
TsarSamuil: help. These covid vaccines are literally SHIT, why else do they demand you take 1, 2 n now 3 shots? The problem is also a disease becomes resilient if u administer a weak vaccine that doesn't do the job proper. Allow illness to survive just makes it strong
Aug 24, 2021 11:25:04 GMT -5
TsarSamuil: instead if we go by the book, we should all wait for a really good vaccine to take out the illness for good. Now...we may never get rid of it..but understandably the world economy has a hard time dealing with lock downs, but that is just needless panic
Aug 24, 2021 11:27:06 GMT -5
TsarSamuil: why Swe had fared well with country not being locked down? Because they are cold people, keeping distance was the thing before covid-19 was ever heard of, I hope world doesn't become like that, but some could use a little common sense n change in behavior.
Aug 24, 2021 11:29:12 GMT -5
TsarSamuil: It's no wonder covid hits so many Arabs in the country, stupid bastards..
Aug 24, 2021 11:29:38 GMT -5
TsarSamuil: If I go to H&M a new shirt, if an Arab wants to buy a pair of pants, not only is his whole family along, his friends, even his freaking grandmother is along n all chattering along in a big dumb group of ignorance..
Aug 24, 2021 11:33:05 GMT -5
Boro: Thx for the response. I'm not sure... It seems the vaccines work, at least people aren't dying of Covid. Those who get ill have a problem, it's not "just a flu". Maybe it's from a chinese laboratory, who knows...
Aug 24, 2021 13:46:55 GMT -5
Boro: I agree regarding Arabs..
Aug 24, 2021 13:50:39 GMT -5
Boro: Be glad, Sweden isn't overpopulated.
Aug 24, 2021 14:11:49 GMT -5
TsarSamuil: true, vaccines do help somewhat, maybe better than nothing..I hope in 2022 we can come out of this nightmare..
Aug 24, 2021 15:38:24 GMT -5
Boro: Horrible times, indeed.
Aug 24, 2021 15:47:41 GMT -5