For the first time the U.S. military has shot down a ballistic missile with an airbourne laser beam. The experiment, conducted off the California coast, was to demonstrate the future of defence tec...
For the first time the U.S. military has shot down a ballistic missile with an airbourne laser beam. The experiment, conducted off the California coast, was to demonstrate the future of defence technology. From the moment the missile was launched, it took the jumbo-jet mounted laser, just two minutes to destroy. The revolutionary use of laser beams is seen as extremely attractive in missile defense, as it has the potential to attack multiple targets at the speed of light, and is far cheaper than current systems.
Last Edit: Jul 21, 2016 10:42:41 GMT -5 by TsarSamuil
Post by TsarSamuil on Feb 13, 2010 15:36:35 GMT -5
Russia 'had laser cannons before U.S.'
MOSCOW, May 20 (RIA Novosti) - Russia started developing tactical laser weapons before the United States and has several prototypes of high-precision combat chemical lasers in its arsenal, a defense industry source said on Tuesday.
The Boeing Company said recently it had test-fired a high-energy chemical laser fitted aboard a C-130H aircraft for the first time. The successful ground tests, "a key milestone for the Advanced Tactical Laser Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration program," took place on May 13 at the Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.
Commenting on the announcement, the Russian expert said: "We tested a similar system back in 1972. Even then our "laser cannon" was capable of hitting targets with high precision."
"We have moved far ahead since then, and the U.S. has to keep pace with our research and development," he added.
At the same time, the source said Boeing had achieved its success in the development of military laser technology due to massive financing from the Pentagon.
"There is no doubt that the Americans are determined to continue the rapid development of tactical airborne laser weapons," he said.
Scott Fancher, vice president and general manager of Boeing Missile Defense Systems, said in Monday's announcement that the company will test-fire the laser in-flight at ground targets later this year.
ATL, which Boeing is developing for the U.S. Department of Defense, can "destroy damage or disable targets with little to no collateral damage, supporting missions on the battlefield and in urban operations."
The Soviet Strategic Defense Program involved extensive research on advanced technologies in the 1980s. The USSR already had ground-based lasers, conceptually illustrated here, capable of interfering with some US satellites.
Post by TsarSamuil on Sept 22, 2010 14:33:03 GMT -5
Russia developing laser weapons - military chief.
Russia is working on a military laser system, the chief of Russia's Armed Forces General Staff said on Wednesday.
"Work on laser weapons is underway across the world, and that includes us," Gen. Nikolai Makarov said.
It is "too soon yet" to speak about the specifications of the Russian laser system, he added.
According to some media reports, Russia has been developing an airborne laser - the so-called flying laser - to disable enemy reconnaissance and data processing systems, as well as shoot down missiles in flight.
RAMENSKOYE (Moscow Region), September 22 (RIA Novosti)
Post by TsarSamuil on Nov 19, 2012 18:43:12 GMT -5
Beams away: Russia boosts airborne combat laser program.
RT.com 19 November, 2012, 15:58
Russia’s high-energy airborne laser system project is back in the frame. Unlike the similar, now-closed US airborne counter-ballistic laser project, the Russian laser station will be assigned for space counter warfare if a space arms race starts.
“The project’s primary objective, according to the data presented earlier, is making inoperable adversary space vehicles’ sensors and optical electronic systems by directed laser beam impulse, which is the first stage of the project. The second stage is, in case the laser gains sufficient power of the beam, the system will be able to engage ballistic targets – which is a remote prospect,” director of the Center for Analysis of World Arms Trade Igor Korotchenko informed RT.
According to Korotchenko, scientific research, engineering and technical testing of the ambitious project are entrusted to Russia’s leading air and space defense corporation Almaz-Antey and Beriev aviation scientific-technical group.
Since the time of the Soviet Union, Russia has substantial potential to create combat laser systems, airborne in particular, he says.
The initial program started back in 1970s. The first A-60 test-bed aircraft (modified Ilyushin-76 airlifter) took into the air in 1981 and two years later it was laser-equipped and performing experiments. Another test-bed aircraft joined the program in 1991.
To this day only the latter flying laboratory remains, but the actual work on the airborne combat laser system did not stop over the last two decades, despite the disastrous situation with financing of the military-industrial complex after the fall of the USSR. The last four years witnessed special attention to the program.
Over the years the A-60 program developed into an operable 1LK222 laser system. During state tests in 2009, the system was tested on the optical systems of a satellite on 1,500km-high orbit. After that information about the project went into shadows.
“The project never stopped,” Korotchenko, told RT. “It’s just the announcement in the media has been made only now.”
The new system has reportedly been named Sokol-Eshelon (Falcon-Echelon). Scientists say the laser is practically ready, so the A-60 aircraft that spent two years on the airfield with most equipment dismantled will be back in the skies next year.
The A-60 test-bed aircraft is going to be fully modernized and refurbished, including installation of a new, more powerful laser station, by late 2013, reports Izvestia daily newspaper.
Russia’s Defense Ministry commented to RT it has “definitely” put the airborne laser project on its wish-list and will be closely following the development of the project.
Korotchenko stressed that Russia’s airborne laser program is designed to serve as asymmetrical response to world’s looming space arms race.
“Surely we’re not going to follow the space arms race, but we will have a counterbalance tool to even chances in case of a potential military conflict to ensure security of the Russian Federation,” he outlined.
It appears Russian scientists have overcome the problems that put an end to the American airborne combat laser program that was developed jointly by Boeing, Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin/Boeing for 16 years. The modified Boeing 747-400F, equipped with a laser station, reportedly successfully intercepted two ballistic missiles during tests in 2010.
All the following attempts proved to be unsuccessful and, after the final flight on February 14, 2012, the laser Boeing with dismantled equipment was sent to the famous Boneyard, the US Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group aircraft and missile storage.
Korotchenko said the two projects bear a significant difference: Americans aimed at physically more sophisticated ballistic targets interception in the atmosphere whereas Russian project is being designed for space counter warfare.
“Technological potential inherited from the Soviet Union and preserved in Russia gives grounds for successful realization of the project,” Korotchenko shared.
The developers of the new laser station say they are still unsure what platform will be used for the system in the future: the recently introduced airlifter Ilyushin-476, or a perspective strategic bomber.
“Laser combat systems have bright perspective in Russia for use in both troops and the Air Force,” Korotchenko concluded.
It must be noted that the Soviet Union used to have a considerable number of combat laser programs, among them space-based high-energy laser battle station Skif-DM (a part of the Buran shuttle and Energy booster rocket program), the A-60 laser aircraft, sea-based combat laser for future advanced battleships, tested on Dikson laboratory ship in the Black Sea and even a laser tank Szhatie (Compression), developed to working machine capable of knocking out enemy’s optical systems on the battlefield.
Reportedly, A-60 platform was once testing the future megawatt-class laser for space battle station Skif-DM.
Two decades after the fall of the USSR, according to available open-source data, only the laser test-bed aircraft A-60 project is alive and kicking.
Post by TsarSamuil on Jan 25, 2013 14:51:05 GMT -5
Putin sees laser weapons worth to develop.
English.news.cn 2013-01-25 00:25:46
MOSCOW, Jan. 24 (Xinhua) -- Laser weapons are a promising direction for research and development, Russian President Vladimir Putin said Thursday.
"Who could think in the time when the book Hyperboloid of Engineer Garin was being written that this will be made in reality, and this has been in the making," Putin told a meeting of students ' sports organizations.
He referred to the science fiction written in 1927 by Soviet writer Alexei Tolstoi, in which a fictional "laser cannon" was invented by its main character.
The president made his remarks answering a proposal from a participant of the meeting to make a military game Lasertag mandatory for students' physical and patriotic training. Hand laser pointers are used in that game as a "weapon."
According to Putin, laser weapons have been a very promising area of military scientific research.
In September 2010, then Chief of Staff Commander Nikolai Makarov said Russia had been developing aircraft-based lasers for combat purposes.
The Soviet Strategic Defense Program involved extensive research on advanced technologies in the 1980s. The USSR already had ground-based lasers, conceptually illustrated here, capable of interfering with some US satellites.
I am finding out the advantage of laser systems to my business. It is so good when I read your post. It is very useful.
Post by TsarSamuil on Feb 24, 2014 17:32:54 GMT -5
Russia Develops 'Laser Shield' for Military Optical Devices.
NOVOSIBIRSK, February 24 (RIA Novosti) – Russian scientists have developed a special filter that protects sensitive elements of optical devices used in military equipment from destruction by laser beams.
According to Dmitry Chesnokov, a dean of the faculty of nanotechnologies at the Siberian State Geodesic Academy, many countries are developing high-power lasers capable of destroying optical sensors used in various types of weaponry, including night vision devices and optical guidance systems.
“Our army may face this challenge, so we have designed special built-in filters that could ensure protection from laser attacks,” Chesnokov told reporters Monday, adding that these filters can also be used to increase combat survivability of unmanned aerial vehicles.
The scientist said the new technology requires only slight modification of existing optical systems and the addition of a filter, which would not significantly increase the cost of weaponry.
Chesnokov said the new technology had been thoroughly tested and is ready for implementation.
Preliminary talks with the Russian military are under way, the scientist said.
Post by TsarSamuil on Dec 12, 2014 16:36:37 GMT -5
Russia, US Test Laser Weapons: Ex-Chief of General Staff.
MILITARY & INTELLIGENCE 22:09 11.12.2014
Former Chief of the Russian General Staff asserted that the last four months of testing a ship-based laser weapon system "have exceeded all expectations".
MOSCOW, December 11 (Sputnik) — Russia is developing laser weapons alongside with the US, army general Yury Baluevsky, former Chief of the Russian General Staff, told RIA Novosti Thursday.
Citing a statement made by Matthew L. Klunder, Chief of US Naval Research, Baluevsky asserted that the last four months of testing a ship-based laser weapon system “have exceeded all expectations.” According to him, the US Navy has developed a new combat laser capable of destroying small vessels and UAVs.
"I only can say this – the development of military technologies and creating test pieces of advanced and operating weapons goes alongside in all the countries capable of doing such a work," Baluevsky said.
Russian weapon expert Igor Korotchenko said the US "gradually develops weapons based on new physical principles," and recent tests have shown that US warships are likely to carry laser weapons.
"Russia has similar developments, but we are also supposed to develop and create an aircraft-based laser weapon. I should say such research needs a large amount of money, but it is needed to be done in order to maintain a technological balance with the US," Korotchenko said.
Alexander Khramchikhin, deputy director of the Institute for Political and Military Analysis, believes that US laser weapons will eventually be integrated into a brand-new short-range air defense system. "The US has come to a conclusion that there is one single scenario of using this weapon – for tactical air defense, in other words, as a short-range air defense weapon. Lasers could hit small-sized targets, including UAVs or ammunition supplies," the analyst opined. The US, he contends, will probably direct laser weapons against small ships and high-speed boats. Short-range air defense is the only possible scenario for using laser weapons, according to the expert.
"Now, it is quite clear that it is impossible to use combat laser for any other purposes, since the energy and beam scattering issues have not been solved yet," Khramchikhin said.
Last Edit: Aug 6, 2016 18:35:15 GMT -5 by TsarSamuil
Post by TsarSamuil on Mar 22, 2015 15:32:17 GMT -5
Russia: Exclusive footage of top-secret space laser pistol!
RuptlyTV Mar 20, 2015
Ruptly was granted exclusive access to film what was one of the Soviet Union's most closely guarded secret weapons - laser guns for use in space - in Moscow, Friday. If you ever thought how to protect yourself from aliens when you are in space, this exclusive footage may suggest an answer. The weapons, however, were designed in the Cold War and are a reminder of a time when the weaponisation of space was verging on actuality.
Russia Gives Soviet-Era Laser Tank New Lease on Life.
Sputnik RUSSIA 13:10 16.07.2015
Russian engineers are working to breathe new life in Soviet-era plans to develop a laser tank, a staple of Hollywood blockbusters and video games, Russian media reported.
During the closing years of the Cold War, the USSR tried to make that part of science fiction come true and it worked, but not too well.
In its May 28, 2015 article the state-run Rossiyskaya Gazeta newspaper hinted that Russian engineers were now working on similar laser weapons “without advertising it.”
By the mid-1970s, the Soviet Union was eagerly pursuing laser weapons on land, at sea, in the air and in outer space as a useful counter to US and Western European optics, missiles, spy satellites and other high-tech systems.
In 1982, it built the first full-size prototype of an energy weapon for a ground vehicle and installed in on a tracked chassis.
The first laser tank was born.
“Creators of the wonder-weapon began thinking about what to call their development so no one would guess anything and, most important, so there also was no mention of a laser,” the Moscow-based Rossiyskaya Gazeta noted.
“They called it a portable automated sighting device, designated the vehicle the 1K11 and dubbed it the Stilet — or Stiletto. It was meant to burn out enemy cameras, scopes and seekers,” it added.
Far more impressive was the 1K17, which boasted a far more powerful multi-channel laser on a T-80 tank chassis. A dozen individual lenses amplified the main beam as huge batteries allowed the vehicle to fire multiple “shots” in rapid succession.
“[The] laser guns … were capable of burning out all enemy optics within direct line of sight in fractions of a second,” the newspaper wrote. “When there was contact with enemy armored vehicles, Soviet laser tanks simply would blind them, making aimed fire impossible,” Rossiyskaya Gazeta wrote.
The energy beam would have twice the range of a normal tank gun.
In 1992, the first prototypes rolled out of the factory, but the economic chaos in the wake of the Soviet collapse forced the government to cancel the program.
“But one high-ranking official of the Yeltsin government once publicly let it slip that platforms were practically ready,” Rossiyskaya Gazeta noted. “The technology has not been lost.”
“There are a handful of areas … where, theoretically, Soviet-era engineering remains competitive on today’s battlefield,” retired US Army Major Ray Finch, - an analyst at the Army’s Foreign Military Studies Office , — wrote in the June 2015 edition of OE Watch.
Post by TsarSamuil on Jul 21, 2016 11:10:28 GMT -5
Russian Scientists Turn Sci-Fi Cannon Into Reality (Video)
What the mind can conceive it can achieve
RI Kristina Bausman, Jul 19, 2016
Watching sci-fi movies you are often left thinking that all these incredible and fantastical inventions will remain firmly within the imaginary realms of fantasy. But sometimes such things become reality through the efforts of scientists and researchers.
And now we have another example of a transmutation of fantasy into reality in the form of an electric cannon created by Russian scientists that fires a projectile at the speed of of 5.5 kilometers per second. Modern tank cannons cannot compare with that, either in terms of speed of shot or capacity. A little projectile with this creation is turned into an ironclad train, destroying everything in its path.
Over the last few decades the invention of weapons of the future has occupied the minds of scientists. No wonder that today, when advanced technologies are developing so fast and there is a breeding ground for implementation of a new ideas, that so many great innovations are appearing.
Last Edit: Jul 21, 2016 11:12:51 GMT -5 by TsarSamuil
Future is Here: Russian Army Already Uses Several Types of Laser Weaponry.
MILITARY & INTELLIGENCE 18:27 02.08.2016
The Russian Armed Forces have been equipped with laser weapons, the country's deputy defense minister said.
SAROV (Sputnik) — The Russian Armed Forces already have some types of laser weaponry in service, Deputy Defense Minister Yuri Borisov said Tuesday.
"It is not some sort of exotics anymore, those are not experimental, prototype models — we have already commissioned several types of laser weaponry," Borisov said addressing an event commemorating the 70th anniversary of All-Russian Research Institute for Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) in Sarov.
Borisov earlier said that weaponry based on new physics principles (beam, geophysical, wave, kinetic and other types of weapons) would define the shape of the Russian Armed Forces under the new state arms procurement program until 2025.
Facts About the Secret Laser Weapons Systems Russia is Developing.
Sputnik MILITARY & INTELLIGENCE 18:45 04.08.2016
Deputy Defense Minister Yuri Borisov has revealed that the Russian military has commissioned several types of laser weaponry, but remains tight-lipped about the kinds of systems being developed. What kinds of systems does the officer have in mind? Military experts speaking to one of Russia's leading independent newspapers attempted to find out.
On Tuesday, speaking at an event commemorating the 70th anniversary of the All-Russian Research Institute for Experimental Physics in Sarov, central Russia, Borisov said that laser weapons are no longer a novelty for the Russian armed forces, with the military already in the process of commissioning and even adopting several types of laser-based weapons systems.
Earlier, Borisov indicated that high-tech weapons systems, including lasers, would help shape the capabilities of the Russian army in accordance with the state arms procurement program up to the year 2025.
In late 2014, amid reports of the US Navy's testing and deployment of its Laser Weapon System (LaWS) in the Persian Gulf, Yuri Baluyevsky, former Chief of General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces, teased observers worldwide by indicating that Russia has been working to keep pace with the US in the development of laser weapons technology.
In late 2014, Bloomberg reported that US Navy ships in the Persian Gulf had been deployed with laser weaponry onboard capable of destroying small targets, including small drones and RPG weapons, and the engines of inflatable dinghies. The LaWS system is believed to generate about 30 kilowatts of energy for its laser beam, with the Navy spending about $40 million on R&D and testing of the system.
Commenting on the significance Deputy Defense Minister Borisov's remarks in an analysis for the independent online newspaper Svobodnaya Pressa, columnist Anton Mardasov recalled that the LaWS-type system has even been suggested by some experts as being the only realistic weaponized laser system given present technology.
At the same time, the journalist recalled, "the US had long been engaged in the creation of a combat laser system, based on a modified Boeing 747-400F cargo plane. In February 2010, according to the DoD's Missile Defense Agency, this system successfully managed to hit two ballistic missiles – in the boost phase of the flight; however, subsequent tests failed, and in 2011 the Department of Defense found the system unworkable and too expensive."
Explaining the program's termination, Mardasov recalled that the testing was conducted at a specially-prepared range, against a known target, "and most importantly, under ideal weather conditions, since even the slightest change in the atmosphere or the presence of water vapor results in a drop in the effectiveness of such weapons by literally orders of magnitude. As a result, the Boeing carrier of the combat laser was sent into storage at the 309th Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group," better known as the Boneyard, in Tucson, Arizona. "According to the Los Angeles Times, the project cost $5 billion."
Despite that program's failure, in 2015, USAF F-35 program chief Jeffrey Harrigian bragged that the F-35 fighter program might be equipped with laser weapons.
However, according to Mardasov, "it's not clear how American specialists expect to overcome the laser's dependence on ideal weather conditions, or resolve the problem of a shortage of energy; if laser weapons were to be installed onboard the F-35, the size of their batteries would be comparable to its engine."
In 1994, the journalist recalled, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Nikolai Basov, the head of the Soviet-era Terra-3 program, charged with developing a high-powered laser for missile defense, commented on the possibility for developing high-powered lasers as follows: "We have firmly established that no one will be able to bring down a ballistic rocket via a laser beam, and we for our part had advanced laser technology in a major way."
Indeed, Mardasov suggested, Soviet scientists actively worked on the development of weaponized laser systems since the 1970s. Soviet scientists allegedly even created an open-type CO2-based laser, meant to paralyze missiles and aircraft, with its beam capable of striking targets the size of a coin. However, following the collapse of the USSR, all work on the creation of such weapons was halted. "But the know-how and technologies have not been lost," the journalist added.
Recalling the best-known Soviet laser projects, the journalist recalled that they included a laser cannon mounted onboard the Dikson search and rescue vessel, the Terra-3 program, tested at the Sary-Shagan testing ground in the Kazakh SSR, the Skif spacecraft, capable of carrying a laser weapon, an air-based laser, mounted on board the Beriev A-60 airborne laser laboratory, and perhaps most famously, the 1K17 Szhatie mobile ground-based laser system (codenamed Stiletto by Western intelligence services).
At the same time, Mardasov pointed out that both Western and post-Soviet Russian press has had a tendency to wildly exaggerate the power and effectiveness of laser weaponry, going so far as to speak of a mysterious 'laser-based carbine rifle', supposedly in stock with the Russian armed forces until 1995.
The reality, the journalist noted, is that systems such as "the Soviet 1K17 mobile laser complex could at best blind enemy optics and their human operators, but not much more. Some experts have even argued that a weaponized laser is really a psychological weapon, given that it threatens the enemy with [literally] blinding scouting units, aircraft [operators], artillery gunners, snipers," and other personnel who use optical systems.
"Today's laser systems have not advanced far beyond those of that period," Mardasov suggested. A series of problems remain unresolved. "Firstly, is the problem of excess heat. In the American Boeing-based 'flying laser' project, upwards of 80% of pulse energy was lost in the form of heat, and even in testing on the ground the aircraft's paint literally began to burn away from its intensity."
"Secondly, the issue of the beam being scattered has not been resolved; dust, soot and smoke scatter the laser beam, weakening it. Thirdly, scientists are yet to create an optical lens capable of withstanding powerful laser beams; following one serious pulse, the melted lens needs to be replaced. According to some experts, this, along with the price, is one of the main obstacles to the use of laser-based weapons in space – one shot and the optical lens fails, and the system itself becomes much too hot."
Therefore, Mardasov noted, "given that these problems are yet to be resolved, we can speak today only of very weak lasers capable of disabling small drones, suppressing optical-electronic systems and reconnaissance tools, and detecting reflections from optical sights, binoculars, etc."
At the moment, the journalist suggested that probably the most effective real-world application of weaponized lasers in the Russian military is the KDHR-1H, a mobile reconnaissance unit using a laser locator to detect low-level atmospheric chemical contamination. Another system, the Potok, used by Russia's National Guard, consists of a non-lethal system meant to temporarily blind enemies.
"In the Soviet period, mechanized infantry units were also equipped with the BMP-1C, a specialized modification of the BMP-1 infantry fighting vehicle equipped with the AV-1 laser, tasked with disabling enemy optical devices."
Speaking to Svobodnaya Pressa, Viktor Murakhovsky, retired army colonel and member of the expert council of the Russian Military-Industrial Commission, recalled that many BMP-1Cs were initially deployed in the Far Eastern Military District. "After that, the military began being equipped with the 1K17 Szhatie, developed on the basis of Su-100P self-propelled anti-tank gun. Its purpose was to defeat the optoelectronic devices of enemy soldiers." Between two and 15 units were believed to have been produced.
In 1990, a prototype 1K17 with an upgraded laser system featuring 12 optical channels was built; the system was recommended for adoption by the military in 1992, but in connection with the collapse of the USSR and the lack of funding it never entered into service. That system, Murakhovsky recalled, "was more powerful, and capable of operating at relatively long distances, against both land and air-based weapons systems."
This kind of system, the analyst suggested, may very well be what Deputy Defense Minister Borisov had in mind when he referred to the commissioning of laser weapons systems for the military. "Because if we're talking about laser weapons capable of shooting down missiles, or something similar, this demands power capabilities which simply do not exist for mobile ground-based vehicles. This requires either a ship, or a permanent installation, and good weather conditions, since everything from humidity to fog, smoke, rain, and snow affect the laser's efficacy."
Moreover, Murakhovsky noted, "it's necessary to understand that defenses against laser weapons are provided by very primitive means." For example, a smokescreen created by a smoke grenade can effectively eliminate ground-based dangers caused by laser weapons. In other words, "it's not a miracle weapon – not a vundervaffe, but just one element of a weapon system which can be effective in certain circumstances, with significant limitations, similar to any other weapon."
For his part, Andrei Frolov, editor-in-chief of Arms Exports magazine, suggested that it's possible that Borisov was referring to a tactical system, which can be mounted on armored vehicles.
Finally, Denis Fedutinov, an expert in unmanned vehicles, suggested that while lasers are still in an experimental phase, work has advanced in recent years making them effective weapons.
"If we are talking about the military tasks that can already be solved by these systems, these include air defense tasks, including against combat drones. In this area, the US has a strong position, developing systems such as the Avenger, HEL MD, and ADAM, with companies including Boeing, Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin and others involved in their creation."
"Research in this area is also being conducted in Europe," Fedutinov added. "For example, back in 2011, the German company Rheinmetall tested a high-energy laser weapon mounted on the C-RAM rotating defense turret, in the course of which it was able to successfully defeat a UAV. China too is involved in the work on laser weapons. In 2014, it was reported that an experiment by the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics resulted in the downing of a small drone hit from a distance of two kilometers."
Effectively, Russia, having accrued tremendous experience in the creation of laser weapons systems in the Soviet period, is effectively simply returning to the field. But rather than science fiction-like ideas, it's likely that what engineers are working on are tried and tested systems for real world military applications.
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Aug 3, 2018 10:18:31 GMT -5
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Oct 10, 2018 12:53:50 GMT -5
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Oct 14, 2018 5:48:26 GMT -5
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Oct 14, 2018 18:18:38 GMT -5
Proto-Orchid: Then they come back home, put pictures on Instagram or Facebook to show off how they spent their time jogging, and as mental satisfaction they get few likes or hearts, or whatever social medias have today, which is a measure of how good their life is. Sick
Oct 14, 2018 18:21:43 GMT -5
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Nov 11, 2018 6:56:57 GMT -5
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Nov 25, 2018 17:19:11 GMT -5
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Nov 30, 2018 3:17:07 GMT -5
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Dec 29, 2018 9:15:04 GMT -5
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Sept 13, 2019 20:32:33 GMT -5
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